On this page, we collect publications in video-based social science research in the following areas:

The lists below are non-exhaustive. Please contact us if you have conducted VDA-type research or written on VDA-related methodology, and would like to share a link to your paper through this website.

Methodology & Guidelines

Aspelin, Jonas (2023). “Microscopic relational analysis: a method for researching the teacher-student relationship.International Journal of Research & Method in Education 46(1): 56-69.

Austin, Jonathan L. & Isabel Bramsen (2023). “Visual (data) observation in International Relations: Attentiveness, close description, and the politics of seeing differently.” Review of International Studies (online first).

Beauchamp, Gary, Chantelle Haughton, Cheryl Ellis, Siân Sarwar, Jacky Tyrie, Dylan Adams & Sandra Dumitrescu (2019): “Using video to research outdoors with young children.” In Using Innovative Methods in Early Years Research, edited by Zeta Brown & Helen Perkins. London: Routledge.

Bianchi, Federica & Alessandro Lomi (2022). “From Ties to Events in the Analysis of Interorganizational Exchange Relations.” Organizational Research Methods (online first).

Borish, David, Ashlee Cunsolo, Ian Mauro, Cate Dewey, & Sherilee L. Harper (2021). “Moving images, Moving Methods: Advancing Documentary Film for Qualitative Research.” International Journal of Qualitative Research (online first). Supplementary document with guidelines available here.

Bramsen, Isabel & Jonathan Luke Austin (2022). “Affects, emotions and interaction: the methodological promise of video data analysis in peace research.” Conflict, Security & Development 22(5): 457-473.

deCuir-Gunby, Jessica T., Patricia L. Marshall & Allison W. McCulloch (2012). “Using Mixed Methods to Analyze Video Data: A Mathematics Teacher Professional Development Example.Journal of Mixed Methods Research 6(3):199-216.

Cruz, Marcos & Javier González-Villa (2021). “Unbiased Population Size Estimation on Still Gigapixel Images.” Sociological Methods & Research50(2), 627–648.

del Río Carral, Maria, Lucia Volpato, Chloé Michoud, Thanh-Trung Phan & Daniel Gatica-Pérez (2021). “Professional YouTubers’ Health Videos as Research Material: Formulating a Multi-Method Design in Health Psychology.Methods in Psychology 5.

Derry, Sharon J. et al. (2010). “Conducting Video Research in the Learning Sciences: Guidance on Selection, Analysis, Technology, and Ethics.” Journal of the Learning Sciences 19(1): 3-53.

Dietrich, Bryce J. & Jielu Yao (2020). “How Audio, Image, and Video Data is Being Used to Study Legislative Behavior.” The Legislative Scholar 4(1): 10-12.

Fazeli, Sahar, Judith Sabetti & Manuela Ferrari (2023). “Performing Qualitative Content Analysis of Video Data in Social Sciences and Medicine: The Visual-Verbal Video Analysis Method.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods (online first).

Fitzgerald, Angela, Mark Hackling & Vaille Dawson (2013): “Through the Viewfinder: Reflecting on the Collection and Analysis of Classroom Video Data.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 12(1): 52-64.

Flewitt, Roșie (2016): “Using video to investigate preschool classroom interaction: education research assumptions and methodological practices.Visual Communication 5(1): 25-50.

de Freitas, Elizabeth (2016). “The moving image in education research: Reassembling the body in classroom video data.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 29(4): 553-572.

Golann, Joanne W., Zitsi Mirakhur & Thomas J. Espenshade (2019). “Collecting Ethnographic Video Data for Policy ResearchAmerican Behavioral Scientist 63(3): 387-403.

Greenland, Fiona R. & Michelle D. Fabiani (2023). “Satellite Images in Conflict Research: Methodological and Ethical Considerations.Methodological Advances in Research on Social Movements, Conflict, and Change (online first).

Griffin, Tom (2018). “A discussion of video as a data collection tool.” Current Issues in Tourism 22(18): 2183-2196.

Hannula, Markku S., Eeva Haataja, Erika Löfström, Enrique Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Jessica F. A. Salminen-Saari, & Anu Laine (2022). “Advancing video research methodology to capture the processes of social interaction and multimodality.” ZDM – Mathematics Education.

Harrison, Barbara (2002). “Seeing health and illness worlds – using visual methodologies in a sociology of health and illness: a methodological review.” Sociology of Health & Illness 24(6): 856-872.

Kissock-Mamede, Tom (2023). “Indigenous Livestreaming in Brazil: A Methodological Case for Reflective Distant Witnessing.” In: Digital Preservation and Documentation of Global Indigenous Knowledge Systems, edited by Tlou Maggie Masenya. IGI Global (pp. 262-281).

Lau, Annica & May Bratby (2023): “Collecting qualitative data via video statements in the digital era“. Labour & Industry (online first).

Laurier, Eric & Chris Philo (2005). “Natural problems of naturalistic video data.” In: Video-Analysis methodology and methods. Qualitative Audiovisual Data Analysis in Sociology, edited by Hubert Knoblauch, Jürgen Raab, Hans-Georg Soeffner & Bernt Schnettler. Oxford: Peter Lang.

Legewie, Nicolas M. & Anne Nassauer (2023): “Current and Future Debates in Video Data Analysis.Sociological Methods & Research (online first).

Lasse S. Liebst, Lasse Baggesen, Kasper L. Dausel, Virginia Pallante & Marie R. Lindegaard (2023). “Human Observers Are Accurate in Judging Personal Relationships in Real-life Settings: A Methodological Tool for Human Observational Research.Field Methods (online first).

Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkranz & Wim Bernasco (2018). “Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 55(1): 155-186.

Makin, David A., Dale W. Willits, & Rachael Brooks (2021). “Systematic social event modeling: a methodology for analyzing body-worn camera footage.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 24(2): 163-176.

McCluskey, John & Craig Uchida (2023). “Video Data Analysis and Police Body-Worn Camera Footage.” Sociological Methods & Research (online first).

McCluskey, John, Craig D. Uchida, Yinthe Feys & Shellie E. Solomon (2023). “Systematic Social Observation of the Police in the 21st Century.” Cham: Springer.

Nassauer, Anne & Nicolas M. Legewie (2019). “Analyzing 21st Century Video Data on Situational Dynamics—Issues and Challenges in Video Data Analysis.” Social Sciences 8(3).

Nassauer, Anne & Nicolas M. Legewie (2020). „Methodologische Entwicklungen in der Gewaltforschung: Videodatenanalyse, Mixed Methods und Big Data“. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie 45: 135-156.

Nassauer, Anne & Nicolas M. Legewie (2021). “Video Data Analysis: A Methodological Frame for a Novel Research Trend.” Sociological Methods and Research 50(1). (Published online first May, 2018)

Nassauer, Anne & Nicolas M. Legewie (2022). “Video Data Analysis: How to use 21st-Century Videos in the Social Sciences.” London: SAGE Publications.

Nexo, Louise A. (2024): “Toxic Behaviours in Esport: A Review of Data-Collection Methods Applied in Studying Toxic In-Gaming Behaviours.” International Journal of Esports 1(1).

Overstreet, Matthew, Diana Akhmedjanova & Silvia Vaccino-Salvadore (2023). “Brain-bound vs. extended: Contrasting approaches to second-language research writing in digital environments.Journal of Second Language Writing 61.

Pallante, Virginia, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Peter Ejbye-Ernst, Camilla Bank Friis & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2022). “Putting actual behavior back into the social sciences: A Plea for video-based interaction ethology.PsyArXiv Preprints.

Pallante, Virginia, Peter Ejbye-Ernst & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2023). “An ethogram method for the analysis of human distress-related behaviours in the aftermath of public conflicts.” Behavior (online first).

Piza, Eric L. & Victoria A. Sytsma (2022). “Video Data Analysis of Body-Worn Camera Footage. A Practical Methodology in Support of Police Reform.” In: Justice and Legitimacy in Policing: Transforming the Institution, edited by Miltonette Olivia Craig & Kwan-Lamar Blount-Hill. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Robson, Sue (2011). “Producing and Using Video Data in the Early Years: Ethical Questions and Practical Consequences in Research with Young Children.Children & Society 25(3): 179-189.

St. Lawrence, Schuyler, Jason Hallman, & Rini Sherony (2020). “Video from user-generated content as a source of pre-crash scenario naturalistic driving data.Traffic Injury Prevention: S171-S173.

Savage, Michael J. & Vera Woloshyn (2022). “Ethical and Methodological Considerations When Using Social Media Sites as Data Sources: Lessons Learned From a YouTube Case Study.” SAGE Research Methods: Doing Research Online.

Schafer, Joseph, Julie Hibdon, & Michael Kyle (2024). “Studying rare events in policing: the allure and limitations of using body-worn camera video.” Journal of Crime and Justice 47(1): 79-94.

Yoav, Ido (2016). “Click: From interalia to interaction.” Ethnography 17(4): 497-517.

Ethics in video-based social science research

Everri, Marina, Maxi Heitmayer, Yamin-Slotkus Paulius & Lahlou Saadi (2020). “Ethical challenges of using video for qualitative research and ethnography State of the art and guidelines.” In: Challenges and Solutions in Ethnographic Research Ethnography with a Twist, edited by Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto, Viktorija L.A. Čeginskas & Aino-Kaisa Koistinen. London: Routledge. Pp. 68-83.

Legewie, Nicolas M. & Anne Nassauer (2018). “YouTube, Google, Facebook: 21st Century Online Video Research and Research Ethics?“. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research 19(3).

Legewie, Nicolas M. & Anne Nassauer (2020). “Livestreams as Video Data? The 2019 Christchurch Attack Livestream as a Case Study in Research Ethics.” In Legal and Ethical Issues of Live Streaming, edited by Shing-Ling S. Chen, Zhoujun J. Chen, and Nicole Allaire. Rowman & Littlefield.

Levine, Mark, Richard Philpot, Sophie J. Nightingale, Anastasia Kordoni (2024). “Visual Digital Data, Ethical Challenges, and Psychological Science.” American Psychologist 79(1): 109-122.

Rutanen, Niina, Kátia de Souza Amorim, Helen Marwick & Jayne White (2018): “Tensions and challenges concerning ethics on video research with young children – experiences from an international collaboration among seven countries.” Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy 3(7).

Empirical research using VDA or related approaches

Anisin, Alexei & Pelin Ayan Musil (2021). “Protester-police fraternization in the 2013 Gezi Park uprisings.” Social Movement Studies (online first).

Antas, Jolanta & Michał Kozień (2018). “Gestures and Non-Verbal Rituals and Their Meaning in Contemporary Polish Politics.” Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Litteraria Polonica 48 (2): 113-128.

Anthony, Lisa, YooJin Kim &Leah Findlater (2013). “Analyzing User-Generated YouTube Videos to Understand Touchscreen Use by People with Motor Impairments.” Conference paper CHI 2013: Changing Perspectives, Paris, France.

Aram, Dorit (2010). “Writing with young children: a comparison of paternal and maternal guidance.Journal of Research in Reading 33(1): 4-19.

Arlidge, William N.S., Robert Arlinghaus, Ralf H.J.M. Kurvers, Anne Nassauer, Rodrigo Oyanedel & Jens Krause (2023). “Situational social influence leading to non-compliance with conservation rules.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution (online first).

Aspelin, Jonas & Anders Eklöf (2022). “In the blink of an eye: understanding teachers’ relational competence from a micro-sociological perspective.” Classroom Discourse 14(1): 69-87.

Barker, Kristin Kay (2019). “Lay Pharmacovigilance and the Dramatization of Risk: Fluoroquinolone Harm on YouTube.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 60(4), 509-524.

Bellon-Harn, Monica, Vinaya Manchaiah, & Shriya Shashikanth (2020). “A cross-sectional study of the portrayal of childhood speech and language disorders in YouTube videos.” Digital Health 6.

Bellon-Harn, Monica, Vinaya Manchaiah, & Lekeitha R. Morris (2019). “A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of portrayal of autism spectrum disorders in YouTube videos: A short report.” Autism 24(1): 263-268.

Bigsby, Rosemarie, Wendy Coster, Barry M. Lester & Mark R. Peucker (1996). “Motor behavioral cues of term and preterm infants at 3 months.Infant Behavior and Development 19(3): 295-307.

Blair-Loy, Mary, Laura E. Rogers, Daniela Glaser, Y. L. Anne Wong, Danielle Abraham & Pamela C. Cosman (2017). “Gender in Engineering Departments: Are There Gender Differences in Interruptions of Academic Job Talks?” Social Sciences 6(1).

Bloch, Charlotte, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Poul Poder, Jasmin Maria Christiansen & Marie Bruvik Heinskou (2018). “Caring collectives and other forms of bystander helping behavior in violent situations.Current Sociology 66(7): 1049-1069.

Bohn, Manuel, Wilson Filipe da Silva Vieira, Marta Giner Torréns, Joscha Kärtner, Shoji Itakura, Lilia Cavalcante, Daniel B. M. Haun, Moritz Köster & Patricia Kanngiesser (2022). “Mealtime conversations between parents and their 2-year-old children in five cultural contexts.PsyArXiv Preprints.

Borish, David, Ashlee Cunsolo, Jamie Snook, Inez Shiwak, Michele Wood, HERD Caribou Project Steering Committee, Ian Mauro, Cate Dewey, & Sherilee L.Harper (2021). ““Caribou was the reason, and everything else happened after”: Effects of caribou declines on Inuit in Labrador, Canada.Global Environmental Change 68.

Böheim, Ricardo, Tim Urdan, Maximilian Knogler, Tina Seidel (2020). “Student hand-raising as an indicator of behavioral engagement and its role in classroom learning.Contemporary Educational Psychology 62.

Bramsen, Isabel (2018). “How Violence Happens (or not): Situational Conditions of Violence and Nonviolence in Bahrain, Tunisia and Syria, Psychology of Violence.” Psychology of Violence 8(3), 305-315.

Bramsen, Isabel (2022). “Agonistic interaction in practice: laughing, dissensus and hegemony in the Northern Ireland Assembly.” Third World Quarterly 43(6): 1324-1342.

Bramsen, Isabel (2023). “The Micro-Sociology of Peace and Conflict.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brierley, Sarah, Eric Kramon & George Kwaku Ofosu (2020). “The Moderating Effect of Debates on Political Attitudes.” American Journal of Political Science 64(1), 19-37.

van Bruchem, Marly, Laura Hendriks, Hans Myhre Sunde, Don Weenink, Lasse Suonperä Liebst & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2023). “How Citizens Stop Riots: Analyzing the Case of the 2021 Dutch Curfew Riots.Deviant Behavior (online first).

Burke, Jenene & Lisa Stafford (2023). “Through the Eyes of Children with Disabilities: Recognising Children’s Agency in their Play in Inclusive Playspaces“. In: The Routledge International Handbook of Children’s Rights and Disability, edited by Angharad E. Beckett & Anne-Marie Callus. London: Routledge (pp. 555-576).

Chang, Han Il & Leonid Peisakhin (2019). “Building Cooperation among Groups in Conflict: An Experiment on Intersectarian Cooperation in Lebanon.” American Journal of Political Science 63(1), 146-162.

Collins, Randall (2008). “Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Collins, Randall (2009). “The Micro-sociology of Violence.” The British Journal of Sociology 60(3):566-76.

Danish, Joshua A. & Asmalina Saleh (2015). “The impact of classroom context upon 1st and 2nd grade students’ critical criteria for science representations.Instructional Science 43: 665-682.

Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth, Fiona Phelps & Julia Clark (2007). “Development of gaze aversion: Qualitative changes over the early school years.Developmental Psychology 25(5): 513-526.

Edmonds, David Matthew & Marco Pino (2023). “Designedly intentional misgendering in social interaction: A conversation analytic account.Feminism & Psychology (online first).

Ejbye-Ernst, Peter, Marie Lindegaard & Wim Bernasco (2020). “A CCTV-based analysis of target selection by guardians intervening in interpersonal conflicts.” European Journal of Criminology (online first).

Ejbye-Ernst, Peter, Marie Lindegaard & Wim Bernasco (2020). “Third Parties Mirror the Aggression of the Antagonists: A Video-Based Analysis of Third-Party Aggression in Interpersonal Conflicts.Journal of Interpersonal Violence (online first).

Ejbye-Ernst, Peter, Marie Lindegaard & Wim Bernasco (2022). “How to stop a fight—A qualitative video analysis of how third-parties de-escalate real-life interpersonal conflicts in public.” Psychology of Violence, 12(2): 84–94.

Estévez, David, María-José Terrón-López, Paloma J. Velasco-Quintana, Rosa-María Rodríguez-Jiménez & Valle Álvarez-Manzano (2021). “A Case Study of a Robot-Assisted Speech Therapy for Children with Language Disorders.Sustainability 13(5).

Fairbairn, Catharine E., Michael A. Sayette, John M. Levine, Jeffrey F. Cohn & Kasey G. Creswell (2013). “The effects of alcohol on the emotional displays of Whites in interracial groups.Emotion 13(3): 468–477.

Fele, Giolo (2008). “The Collaborative Production of Responses and Dispatching on the Radio: Video Analysis in a Medical Emergency Call Center.” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research 9(3).

Friis, Camilla Bank (2023). “Group Styles of Justice or Service: How Ticket Inspectors Manage Contested Citizen Encounters.” Symbolic Interaction 46(1): 26-46.

Friis, Camilla Bank (2023). “Ticket inspectors use emotion displays of sympathy and dominance to manage status dynamics in passenger encounters.” Current Sociology (online first).

Friis, Camilla Bank, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Richard Philpot & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2020). “Ticket inspectors in action: Body-worn camera analysis of aggressive and nonaggressive passenger encounters.” Psychology of Violence 10(5), 483-492.

Friis, Camilla Bank & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2021). “Citizen Self-Presentation and Aggression in Ticket Fining Events: A Video Observational Study.Deviant Behavior (online first). doi: 10.1080/01639625.2021.1921559.

Faria, Jolyon J., Stefan Krause & Jens Krause (2010). “Collective behavior in road crossing pedestrians: the role of social information.Behavioral Ecology 21(6).

Gashi, Liridona (2024). “Navigating Police Contact: How Situations Shape Police–Youth Relations.The British Journal of Criminology (online first).

Gentrup, Sarah, Georg Lorenz, Cornelia Kristen & Irena Logan (2020). “Self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom: Teacher expectations, teacher feedback and student achievement.Learning and Instruction 66.

Hampton, Keith N., Lauren S. Goulet & Garrett Albanesius (2014). “Change in the social life of urban public spaces: The rise of mobile phones and women, and the decline of aloneness over 30 years.Urban Studies 52(8).

Hirst, Lindsay (2022). “Demystifying Oxbridge: a qualitative video analysis of information sharing strategies by student vloggers for prospective applicants.” British Journal of Sociology of Education (online first).

Hoeben, Evelien M., Wim Bernasco, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Carlijn van Baak & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2021). “Social distancing compliance: A video observational analysis.PLOS One 16(3).

Hugener, Isabelle, Christine Pauli, Kurt Reusser, Frank Lipowsky, Katrin Rakoczy & Eckhard Klieme (2009). “Teaching patterns and learning quality in Swiss and German mathematics lessons.Learning and Instruction 19(1): 66-78.

Johnson, Kaprea F., Allison Worth & Dana Brookover (2019). “Families Facing the Opioid Crisis: Content and Frame Analysis of YouTube Videos.” The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families (online first).

Jung, Yong Ju & Liu Jiqun (2022). “Children’s Interest, Search, and Knowledge: A Pilot Analysis of a STEM Maker Workshop.” Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology 59(1).

Keesman, Laura D. (2024). “Creating “Windows of Opportunity”: How Police Officers Sense and Generate Momentum for Gaining Control in Police-Civilian Interactions.” Symbolic Interaction (online first).

Klofstad, Casey A. (2015). “Candidate Voice Pitch Influences Election Outcomes.” Political Psychology 37(5): 725-738.

Klusemann, Stefan (2009). “Atrocities and Confrontational Tension.” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 3(42):1-10.

Koerner, Swen & Mario S. Staller (2022). ““The Situation is Quite Different.” Perceptions of Violent Conflicts and Training Among German Police Officers.” Frontiers in Education.

Koh, Jae O., E. Jane Watkinson & Yong-Jin Yoon (2004). “Video analysis of head blows leading to concussion in competition Taekwondo.” Brain Injury 18(12): 1287-1296 

Konecki, Krzysztof T. (2008). “Touching and Gesture Exchange as an Element of Emotional Bond Construction. Application of Visual Sociology in the Research on Interaction between Humans and Animals.” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research 9(3).

Köster, Moritz, Marta Giner Torréns, Joscha Kärtner, Shoji Itakura, Lilia Cavalcante & Patricia Kanngiesser (2022). “Parental teaching behavior in diverse cultural contexts“. Evolution and Human Behavior 43(5): 432-441.

Krause, Jens, Paweł Romanczuk, Emiel Cracco, William Alridge, Anne Nassauer & Marcel Brass (2021). “Collective rule-breaking.Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience 25(12): 1082-1095.

Kronenberger, Julia & Elmar Souvignier (2005). “Fragen und Erklärungen beim kooperativen Lernen in Grundschulklassen.” Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie 37(2): 91-100.

Lahn, Leif C. & Kirsti Klette (2022). “Reactivity beyond contamination. An integrative literature review of video studies in educational research.” International Journal of Research & Method in Education (online first).

Lee, Chwee Being, Jose Hanham, Kamille Kannangara & Jing Qi (2021). “Exploring user experience of digital pen and tablet technology for learning chemistry: applying an activity theory lens.Heliyon 7(1): e06020.

Lee, Kwangwon & Hannah H. Schertz (2020). “Brief Report: Analysis of the Relationship Between Turn Taking and Joint Attention for Toddlers with Autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 50(7):2633-2640.

Leskinen, Jasmiina (2023). “Fostering distributed leadership and collective innovation practices in a primary school’s makerspace A sociocultural investigation.” Dissertation at University of Helsinki.

Levine, Mark, Paul J. Taylor, and Rachel Best (2011). “Third Parties, Violence, and Conflict Resolution: The Role of Group Size and Collective Action in the Microregulation of Violence.” Psychological Science 22(3):406-12.

Liebst, Lasse Suonperä, Marie Bruvik Heinskou & Peter Ejbye-Ernst (2018). “On the Actual Risk of Bystander Intervention – A Statistical Study Based on Naturally Occurring Violent Emergencies.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 55(1): 27-50. 

Liebst, Lasse, Richard Philpot, Wim Bernasco, Kasper Dausel, Peter Ejbye‐Ernst, Mathias Nicolaisen & Marie Lindegaard (2019). “Social Relations and Presence of Others Predict Bystander Intervention: Evidence from Violent Incidents Captured on CCTV.” Aggressive Behavior 45(6):598–609.

Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz, Lasse S. Liebst, Richard Philpot, Mark Levine & Wim Bernasco (2022). “Does Danger Level Affect Bystander Intervention in Real-Life Conflicts? Evidence From CCTV Footage.Social Psychology and Personality Science 13(4): 795-802.

Lindley, Siân E. & Andrew F. Monk (2013). “Measuring social behaviour as an indicator of experience.Behavior & Information Technology 32(10): 968-985.

Liu, Feng & Sally Maitlis (2014). “Emotional Dynamics and Strategizing Processes: A Study of Strategic Conversations in Top Team Meetings.” Journal of Management Studies 51(2): 202-234.

Madueke, Kingsley L. (2021). “Towards a Sequence of Ethnic Riots: Stages, Processes and Interactions in the Production of Communal Violence in Jos, Nigeria.Civil Wars (online first).

Makin, David A., Wendy Koslicki, Rachael Brooks, Bryce J. Dietrich & Rachel Bailey (2019). “Contextual Determinants of Observed Negative Emotional States in Police-Community Interactions.Criminal Justice and Behavior 46(2):301-318

Maguire, Edward R., David H.F. Tyler, Natasha Khade & Victor Mora (2023). “Crowd reactions to the police use of force at the 2017 Phoenix Trump rally.” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law (online first).

Manley, Rachel Anna (2023). “Gestures in the Virtual Environment: The Use of Deixis in Youtube Gaming Tutorials.” Dissertation at University of Birmingham.

McCluskey, John, Craig D. Uchida, Shellie E. Solomon, Alese Wooditch, Christine Connor, & Lauren Revier (2019). “Assessing the effects of body-worn cameras on procedural justice in the Los Angeles Police Department.Criminology 57(2): 208-236.

Mik-Meyer, Nanna & Mark Haugaard (2020). “The performance of citizen’s and organisational authority.Journal of Classical Sociology 20(4): 309-334.

Moeller, Kim (2018). “Video-recorded Retail Cannabis Trades in a Low-risk Marketplace Trade Value and Temporal Patterns.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 55(1): 103-124.

Mosselman, Floris, Don Weenink, and Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2018). “Weapons, Body Postures, and the Quest for Dominance in Robberies: A Qualitative Analysis of Video Footage.”Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 55(1): 3–26.

Nexø, Louise A. & Søren Kristiansen (2023). “Players Don’t Die, They Respawn: a Situational Analysis of Toxic Encounters Arising from Death Events in League of Legends.European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research (online first).

Nassauer, Anne (2016). “From Peaceful Marches to Violent Clashes: A Micro-Situational Analysis.” Social Movement Studies (online first).

Nassauer, Anne (2018). “Situational Dynamics and the Emergence of Violence During Protests.” Psychology of Violence 8(3).

Nassauer, Anne (2018). “How Robberies Succeed or Fail: Analyzing Crime Caught on CCTV.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 55(1): 125-154.

Nassauer, Anne (2019). Situational Breakdowns – Understanding Protest Violence and Other Surprising Outcomes. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Nassauer, Anne (2021). ““Whose streets? Our streets!”: Negotiations of Space and Violence in Protests.Social Problems 68(4): 852–869.

Nassauer, Anne (2022). “Situation, context, and causality—On a core debate of violence research.” Violence: An International Journal (online first).

Nassauer, Anne (2022). “Eskalation bei Großdemonstrationen. Wege in die Gewalt und Möglichkeiten der Gewaltvermeidung.” In Die Rolle der Polizei bei Versammlungen. Theorie und Praxis, edited by Bernd Bürger. Wiesbaden: Springer (pp. 63–83).

Nassauer, Anne (2023). “Two processes of dehumanization: an in-depth study of racial biases in real-life officer-involved shootings of black citizens.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 47(1): 234-257.

Pallotti, Francesca, Sharon Marie Weldon & Alessandro Lomi (2020). “Lost in translation: Collecting and coding data on social relations from audio-visual recordings.Social Networks (online first).

Pehkonen, Samu (2020). “Response Cries Inviting an Alignment: Finnish huh huh.Research on Language and Social Interaction 53(1).

Philpot, Richard, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, Mark Levine, Wim Bernasco & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2019). “Would I Be Helped? Cross-National CCTV Footage Shows That Intervention Is the Norm in Public Conflicts.American Psychologist 75(1).

Philpot, Richard & Mark Levine (2022). “Evacuation Behavior in a Subway Train Emergency: A Video-based AnalysisEnvironment & Behavior 54(2).

Philpot, Richard, Lasse S. Liebst, Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, P. Verbeek & Mark Levine (2022). “Reconciliation in human adults: a video-assisted naturalistic observational study of post conflict conciliatory behaviour in interpersonal aggression.” Behavior (online first).

Pituch, Evelina, Tiffanie Cormier, Véronique Gilbert & Carolina Bottari (2023). “Babycare Assistance Needs of Parents With Physical Disabilities: An Observational Study“. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 44(1): 25-36.

Piza, Eric L. & Victoria A. Sytsma (2016). “Exploring the Defensive Actions of Drug Sellers in Open-air Markets: A Systematic Social Observation.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 53(1): 36-65.

Piza, Eric L. & Victoria A. Sytsma (2022). “The Impact of Suspect Resistance, Informational Justice, and Interpersonal Justice on Time Until Police Use of Physical Force: A Survival Analysis.” Crime & Delinquency 70(1): 3-28.

Piza, Eric L., Nathan T. Connealy & Victoria A. Sytsma (2022). “Situational factors and police use of force across micro-time intervals: A video systematic social observation and panel regression analysis.” Criminology (online first).

Piza, Eric L. & Lauren N. Moton (2023). “Proactive monitoring and operator discretion: A systematic social observation of CCTV control room operations“. Journal of Criminal Justice 86.

Roman-Juan, Josep, Aina Fiol-Veny, Neus Zuzama, Margalida Caimari-Ferragut, Xavier Bornas & Maria Balle (2020). “Adolescents at risk of anxiety in interaction with their fathers: Studying non-verbal and physiological synchrony.” Developmental Psychobiology 62(8): 1062-1075.

Sauer, Philip E., Joan Fopma-Loy, Jennifer M Kinney & Elizabeth Lokon (2016). ‘‘It makes me feel like myself”: Person-centered versus traditional visual arts activities for people with dementia.Dementia 15(5):895-912.

Silseth, Kenneth (2018). “Students’ everyday knowledge and experiences as resources in educational dialogues.” Instructional Science 46(2): 291-313.

Sobocinski, Márta, Jonna Malmberg & Sanna Järvelä (2017). “Exploring temporal sequences of regulatory phases and associated interactions in low- and high-challenge collaborative learning sessions.” Metacognition and Learning 12(2): 275-294.

Stickle, Ben, Melody Hicks, Amy Stickle & Zachary Hutchinson (2019). “Porch pirates: examining unattended package theft through crime script analysis.A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society (online first).

Sunde, Hans M., Don Weenink & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2023). “Revisiting the demeanour effect: a video-observational analysis of encounters between law enforcement officers and citizens in Amsterdam.” Policing and Society (online first).

Sytsma, Victoria A.  &  Eric L. Piza (2018). “Script Analysis of Open-air Drug Selling: A Systematic Social Observation of CCTV Footage.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 55(1): 78-102.

Sytsma, Victoria A., Vijay F. Chillar & Eric L. Piza (2021). “Scripting police escalation of use of force through conjunctive analysis of body-worn camera footage: A systematic social observational pilot study.” Journal of Criminal Justice 74.

Sytsma, Victoria A., Eric L. Piza & Vijay F. Chillar (2021). “Measuring Procedural Justice Policy Adherence During Use of Force Events: The Body-Worn Camera as a Performance Monitoring Tool.Criminal Justice Policy Review 32(9).

Sytsma, Victoria A., Nathan Connealy, & Eric L. Piza (2021). “Environmental Predictors of a Drug Offender Crime Script: A Systematic Social Observation of Google Street View Images and CCTV Footage.” Crime & Delinquency 67(1): 27-57.

Tang, Fei & Raees Calafato (2022). “Transnational Multilingual Families in China: Multilingualism as Commodity, Conflict, and In-Betweenness.” SAGE Open.

Terrill, William & Laura Zimmermann (2021). “Police Use of Force Escalation and De-escalation: The Use of Systematic Social Observation With Video Footage.” Police Quarterly 25(2): 155-177.

Timmermans, Stefan & Iddo Tavory (2020). “Racist Encounters: A Pragmatist Semiotic Analysis of Interaction.” Sociological Theory 38(4).

Uchida, Craig, John McCluskey, Jonathan Kringen, Anne Kringen, Sean Kato, Heleana Melendez, & Jennifer Schmitz (2022). “Police accounts of critical incidents: a descriptive and empirical assessment.” Journal of Crime and Justice 47(1): 95-111.

Ulrich, Gerald & K. Harms (1979). “Video‐analytic study of manual kinesics and its lateralization in the course of treatment of depressive syndromes.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 59(5): 481-492.

Ulrich, Gerald & K. Harms (1985). “A video analysis of the non-verbal behaviour of depressed patients before and after treatment.Journal of Affective Disorders 9(1): 63-67.

Weenink, Don, Raheel Dhattiwala & David van der Duin (2021). “Circles of Peace. A Video Analysis of Situational Group Formation and Collective Third-Party Intervention in Violent Incidents.The British Journal of Criminology (online first).

Wegge, Jürgen, Joachim Vogt & Christiane Wecking (2010). “Customer-induced stress in call centre work: A comparison of audio- and videoconference.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 80(4): 693-712.

Willits, Dale W. & David A. Makin (2018). “Show Me What Happened: Analyzing Use of Force through Analysis of Body-Worn Camera Footage“. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 55(1): 51-77.

Woloshyn, Vera & Michael J. Savage (2020). “Features of YouTube videos produced by individuals who self-identify with borderline personality disorder.” Digital Health 6.

Computational image and video analysis in the social sciences

Abitbol, Jacob Levy & Márton Karsai (2020). “Interpretable socioeconomic status inference from aerial imagery through urban patterns.” Nature Machine Intelligence, 2: 684–692.

Baldwin, Joshua & Ralf Schmälzle (2022): “A Character Recognition Tool for Automatic Detection of Social Characters in Visual Media Content.Computational Communication Research4(1): 350-371.

Bernasco, Wim, Evelien Hoeben, Dennis Koelma, Lasse Suonperä Liebst, JosephineThomas, Joska Appelman, Cees G. M. Snoek & Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard (2022). “Promise Into Practice: Application of Computer Vision in Empirical Research on Social Distancing.” Sociological Methods & Research (online first).

Burke, Marshall Anne Driscoll David B. Lobell & Stefano Ermon (2021). “Using satellite imagery to understand and promote sustainable development.” Science, 371(6535).

Casas, Andreu & Nora Webb Williams (2019). “Images that Matter: Online Protests and the Mobilizing Role of PicturesPolitical Research Quarterly 72(2): 360-375.

Chen, Kaiping, Sang Jung Kim, Qiantong Gao, Sebastian Raschka (2022): “Visual Framing of Science Conspiracy Videos Integrating Machine Learning with Communication Theories to Study the Use of Color and Brightness.Computational Communication Research4(1): 98-134.

Chen, Ya, Kate Sherren, Michael Smit, & Kyung Young Lee (2021): “Using social media images as data in social science research.” New Media & Society (online first).

Daoud, Adel, Felipe Jordan, Makkunda Sharma, Fredrik Johansson, Devdatt Dubhashi, Sourabh Paul & Subhashis Banerjee (2022). “Measuring poverty in India with machine learning and remote sensing.” arXiv.

Dewan, M. Ali Akbar, Mahbub Murshed & Lin Fuhua (2019). “Engagement detection in online learning: a reviewSmart Learning Environments 6(1).

Dietrich, Bryce J. (2015). “If a Picture is Worth a Thousand Words, What is a Video Worth?” In Exploring the C-SPAN Archives: advancing the research agenda, edited by Robert X. Browning. The Year in C-SPAN Archives Research 2, Article 1.

Dietrich, Bryce J. (2021). “Using Motion Detection to Measure Social Polarization in the U.S. House of Representatives.Political Analysis 29(2):250-259.

Dietrich, Bryce J., Ryan D. Enos & Maya Sen (2019). “Emotional Arousal Predicts Voting on the U.S. Supreme Court.Political Analysis 27(2):237-243.

Dietrich, Bryce J. & Hyena Ko (2022): “Finding Fauci How Visual and Textual Information Varied on Cable News Networks During the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Computational Communication Research4(1): 135-172.

Dietrich, Bryce J. & Melissa Sands (2023). “Seeing Racial Avoidance on City Streets.” Nature Human Behavior (7):1275-1281.

Dietrich, Bryce J., Ryan D. Enos & Maya Sen. Gender Dynamics in Elite Political Contexts: Evidence from Supreme Court Oral Arguments. Unpublished Manuscript.

Doyran, Metehan, Batikan Türkmen, Eda Aydin Oktay, Sibel Halfon & Albert Ali Salah (2019). “Video and Text-Based Affect Analysis of Children in Play Therapy.” Paper presented at the 2019 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction.

Goldstein, Yoav, Nicolas M. Legewie & Doron Shiffer-Sebba (2023). “3D Social Research: Analysis of Social Interaction Using Computer Vision.” Sociological Methods & Research (online first).

Haim, Mario & Marc Jungblut (2020). “Politicians’ Self-depiction and Their News Portrayal: Evidence from 28 Countries Using Visual Computational Analysis.” Political Communication 38(1-2): 55-74.

van Haperen, Sander, Justus Uitermark, & Alex van der Zeeuw (2020). “Mediated Interaction Rituals: A Geography of Everyday Life and Contention in Black Lives Matter.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 25(3): 295-313.

Hashemi, Jordan, Mariano Tepper, Thiago Vallin Spina, Amy Esler, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Helen Egger, Geraldine Dawson & Guillermo Sapiro (2014). “Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants.” Autism Research and Treatment.

Huang, Tianyuan, Timothy Dai, Zhecheng Wang, Hesu Yoon, Hao Sheng, Andrew Y. Ng, Ram Rajagopal & Jackelyn Hwang (2023). “Detecting Neighborhood Gentrification at Scale via Street-level Visual Data.arXiv.

Hwang, Jacquelyn, Nima Dahir, Mayuka Sarukkai & Gabby Wright (2023). “Curating Training Data for Reliable Large-Scale Visual Data Analysis: Lessons from Identifying Trash in Street View Imagery“. Sociological Methods & Research (online first).

Joo, Jungseock & Zachary Steinert-Threlkeld (2022): “Image as Data Automated Content Analysis for Visual Presentations of Political Actors and Events.Computational Communication Research4(1): 11-67.

Jürgens, Pascal, Christine E. Meltzer, & Michael Scharkow (2022): “Age and Gender Representation on German TV A Longitudinal Computational Analysis.Computational Communication Research4(1): 173-207.

Khanal, Salik R., Jaime Sampaio, Juliana Exel, Joao Barroso & Vitor Filipe (2022). “Using Computer Vision to Track Facial Color Changes and Predict Heart Rate.” Journal of Imaging 8(9).

Küpper, Mira & Armin Seyfried (2023). “Identification of social groups and waiting pedestrians at railway platforms using trajectory dataPLOS ONE.

Lu, Yingdan & Jennifer Pan (2022): “The Pervasive Presence of Chinese Government Content on Douyin Trending Videos.Computational Communication Research4(1): 68-98.

Ma, Shuang, Shuangjin Li & Junyi Zhang (2023). “Spatial and deep learning analyses of urban recovery from the impacts of COVID-19.” Scientific Reports, 13.

Malik, Musa Inayat, Frederic Rene Hopp, & Rene Weber (2022): “Representations of Racial Minorities in Popular Movies A Content-Analytic Synergy of Computer Vision and Network Science.Computational Communication Research4(1): 208-253. 

Antoine Mazières, Telmo Menezes & Camille Roth (2021). “Computational appraisal of gender representativeness in popular movies.” Humanities and Social Sciences Communications 8 (137).

Naik, Nikhil, Scott Duke Kominers, Edward L. Glaser & César A. Hidalgo (2017). “Computer vision uncovers predictors of physical urban change.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(29).

Neumann, Markus, Erika Franklin Fowler, & Travis N. Ridout (2022): “Body Language and Gender Stereotypes in Campaign Video.Computational Communication Research4(1): 254-274.

Nyhuis, Dominik, Tobias Ringwald, Oliver Rittmann, Thomas Gschwend & Rainer Stiefelhagen (2021). “Automated Video Analysis for Social Science Research.” In: Handbook of Computational Social Science, Volume 2: Data Science, Statistical Modelling, and Machine Learning Methods, edited by Uwe Engel, Anabel Quan-Haase, Sunny Liu & Lars Lyberg. London: Routledge.

Peng, Yilang (2022): “Athec A Python Library for Computational Aesthetic Analysis of Visual Media in Social Science Research.Computational Communication Research4(1): 323-349. 

Qian, Qingfang & Xiaofeng Chen (2022). “A Multi-Modal Convolutional Neural Network Model for Intelligent Analysis of the Influence of Music Genres on Children’s Emotions.” Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, Special Issue “High-Performance Computing and Automatic Face Recognition.”

Rittmann, Oliver, Tobias Ringwald & Dominic Nyhuis (2020): “Pay attention to this! Explaining emphasis in legislative speech using automated video analysis in the US House of Representatives.” Working paper.

Ratledge, Nathan, Gabe Cadamuro, Brandon de la Cuesta, Matthieu Stigler & Marshall Burke (2022). “Using machine learning to assess the livelihood impact of electricity access.” Nature, 611: 491–495.

Rolf, Esther, Jonathan Proctor, Tamma Carleton, Ian Bolliger, Vaishaal Shankar, Miyabi Ishihara, Benjamin Recht & Solomon Hsiang (2021). “A generalizable and accessible approach to machine learning with global satellite imagery.” Nature Communications, 12.

Seiferling, Ian, Nikhil Naik, Carlo Ratti & Raphäel Proulx (2017). “Green streets − Quantifying and mapping urban trees with street-level imagery and computer vision.Landscape and Urban Planning 165.

Kino, Shiho, Yu-Tien Hsu, Koichiro Shiba, Yung-Shin Chien, Carol Mita, Ichiro Kawachi, Adel Daoud (2021). “A scoping review on the use of machine learning in research on social determinants of health: Trends and research prospects.” SSM – Population Health 15.

Philipp V. Rouast, Marc T. P. Adam, Raymond Chiong, David Cornforth & Ewa Lux (2018). “Remote heart rate measurement using low-cost RGB face video: a technical literature review.Frontiers of Computer Science 12: 858–872.

Snaphaan, Thom & Wim Hardyns (2021). “Utilizing geo-referenced imagery for systematic social observation of neighborhood disorder.” Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 90.

Suel, Esra, John W. Polak, James E. Bennett & Majid Ezzati (2019). “Measuring social, environmental and health inequalities using deep learning and street imagery.” Scientific Reports 9.

Torres, Michelle & Francisco Cantú (2021). “Learning to See: Convolutional Neural Networks for the Analysis of Social Science DataPolitical Analysis.

Voigt, Stefan, Fabio Giulio-Tonolo, Josh Lyons, Jan Kučera, Brenda Jones, Tobias Schneiderhan, Gabriel Platzeck, Kazuya Kaku, Manzul Kumar Hazarika, Lorant Czaran, Suju Li, Wendi Pedersen, Godstime Kadiri James, Catherine Proy, Denis Macharia Muthike, Jerome Bequignon & Debarati Guha-Sapir (2016): “Global trends in satellite-based emergency mapping.” Science, 353(6296): 247-252.

Wang, J. R. & N. Parameswaran (2004). “Survey of Sports Video Analysis: Research Issues and Applications.” In Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology, Vol. 36, edited by M. Piccardi, T. Hintz, X. He, M. L. Huang, D. D. Feng, J. Jin.

Webb Williams, Nora, Andreu Cases, & John D. Wilkerson (2020). “Images as Data for Social Science Research An Introduction to Convolutional Neural Nets for Image Classification.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wu, Patrick Y. & Walter R. Mebane, Jr. (2022): “MARMOT A Deep Learning Framework for Constructing Multimodal Representations for Vision-and-Language Tasks.Computational Communication Research4(1): 275-322.

Xi, Nan, Di Ma, Marcus Liou, Zachary C. Steinert-Threlkeld, Jason Anastasopoulos, & Jungseock Joo (2020). “Understanding the Political Ideology of Legislators from Social Media Images.” Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media 14.

Yeh, Christopher, Anthony Perez, Anne Driscoll, George Azzari, Zhongyi Tang, David Lobell, Stefano Ermon & Marshall Burke (2020). “Using publicly available satellite imagery and deep learning to understand economic well-being in Africa.” Nature Communications  11, 2583.

Zhang, Han & Jennifer Pan (2019). “CASM: A Deep-Learning Approach for Identifying Collective Action Events with Text and Image Data from Social MediaSociological Methodology 49(1).

Zhang, Han & Yilang Peng (2021). “Image Clustering: An Unsupervised Approach to Categorize Visual Data in Social Science Research“. SocArXiv Papers.

Zinkernagel, Axel, Rainer W. Alexandrowicz, Tanja Lischetzke & Manfred Schmitt (2018). “The blenderFace method: video-based measurement of raw movement data during facial expressions of emotion using open-source software.Behavior Research Methods 51: 747-768.

Other methodological approaches for analyzing video data

Conti, Uliano (2016). “Visual Methodologies and Latino Cultural Studies: Implications for the Sociology of Education.” In: Peters M. (Ed) Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Springer.

Cipriani, Roberto & Emanuela C. del Re (2012). “Imagination and society: the role of visual sociology.” Cognitive Processing 13: 455-463.

Heath, Christian, Jon Hindmarsh & Paul Luff (2010). “Video in qualitative research: analysing social interaction in everyday life.” Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.

Kissmann, Ulrike Tikvah (ed.) (2009). “Video Interaction Analysis: Methods and Methodology.” Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.

LeBaron, Curtis, Paula Jarzabkowski, Michael G. Pratt & Greg Fetzer (2018). “An Introduction to Video Methods in Organizational Research.” Organizational Research Methods 21(2):239–60.

Margolis, Eric & Luc Pauwels (eds.) (2011). “The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods.” Los Angeles: Sage.

Meier zur Verl, Christian & René Tuma (2020). “Video Analysis and Ethnographic Knowledge: An Empirical Study of Video Analysis Practices.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 50(1):120–144.

Norris, Sigrid (2004). “Analyzing Multimodal Interaction: A Methodological Framework.” New York/London: Routledge.

Pauwels, Luc (2015). “Reframing Visual Social Science: Towards a More Visual Sociology and Anthropology.Cambridge University Press.

Pink, Sarah (2021). “Doing Visual Ethnography“. 4th edition. SAGE publishing.

Pink, Sarah, Heather Horst, John Postill, Larissa Hjorth, Tania Lewis & Jo Tacchi (2015). “Digital Ethnography: Principles and Practice.” SAGE publishing.

Tuma, René, Bernt Schnettler & Hubert Knoblauch (2013). “Videographie: Einführung in die interpretative Videoanalyse sozialer Situationen.Springer VS.

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